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THOMAS v. PERKINS ET AL.

decided: June 1, 1937.

THOMAS, COLLECTOR
v.
PERKINS ET AL.



CERTIORARI TO THE CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE FIFTH CIRCUIT.

Hughes, Van Devanter, McReynolds, Brandeis, Sutherland, Butler, Stone, Roberts, Cardozo

Author: Butler

[ 301 U.S. Page 656]

 MR. JUSTICE BUTLER delivered the opinion of the Court.

Respondents, husband and wife, sued in the district court for northern Texas to recover a portion of the tax they paid for 1933 on their community income. In respect of the amount now in controversy, that court gave judgment for defendant (15 F.Supp. 356); the Circuit Court of Appeals reversed (86 F.2d 954) and, its decision being in apparent conflict with that of the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit in Comar Oil Co. v. Burnet, 64 F.2d 965, this court granted the collector's petition for a writ of certiorari.

[ 301 U.S. Page 657]

     Hammonds and Branson owned oil and gas leases on undeveloped lands in Texas which provided for a royalty of one-eighth. They assigned to the Faith Oil Company which was principally owned by Green and Perkins. In taking the assignment the company acted for itself to the extent of one-fourth and for Green and Perkins to the extent of three-eighths each. Later it transferred its interest to Perkins. So far as concerns the question here presented, Perkins may be treated as sole assignee of Hammonds and Branson. The assignment recites that they are owners of all rights under or incident to the leases and declares that "in consideration of the sum of Ten Dollars ($10.00) cash*fn1 . . . and of the further sum of Three Hundred Ninety-Five Thousand Dollars ($395,000.00) to be paid out of the oil produced and saved from the . . . lands, and to be one-fourth of all the oil produced and saved . . . until the full sum . . . is paid, we . . . do hereby bargain, sell, transfer, assign, and convey all our rights, title, and interest in and to said leases and rights thereunder."

After description of the lands and leaseholds, the assignment provides that the oil payment shall be made to the assignors, Hammonds and Branson, each to receive one-half thereof, "out of the oil produced and saved from" the leased premises, "which payments shall be made by the pipe line company or other purchaser of said oil, and shall be one-fourth (1/4) of all the oil produced and saved from the above described land, until the full sum . . . is fully paid." It is understood and agreed that the $395,000 "is payable out of oil only, if, as and when produced from said lands above described, and said oil payment does not constitute and shall not be a personal obligation of the assignee, its successors or assigns. . . . The oil payment

[ 301 U.S. Page 658]

     . . . shall bear none of the expenses of the development of said leases or any other burden." The instrument does not purport to reserve a lien.

Perkins drilled wells on the leased lands and in 1933 produced oil; the assignors received substantial amounts to apply on the payment to be made them; the oil was run from the wells into tanks on the leased premises from which it was taken by pipeline companies purchasing the oil. Each purchaser required and was furnished a division order executed by all the interested parties. By such orders assignors authorized purchasers to receive from the wells one-fourth of the oil and declared that the oil run should become the property of the purchasers as soon as received by them. In accordance with the orders, purchasers made payments directly and proportionately to the owner of the royalty reserved in the lease, to assignors, and to assignee. The last could not collect for any portion of the oil applicable to the oil payment to be made assignors.

In their tax return for 1933 respondents, Perkins and wife, did not include in income any part of the proceeds that went to assignors. But the commissioner charged the amounts received by the assignors to the respondents and allowed the latter depletion in respect of the same. At the trial it was proved that the long-established practice of the bureau was not to require the operator of an oil and gas lease to include as a part of his income the royalties payable in kind to the lessors. But where they were payable in cash the operator included the proceeds of all the oil and took as an offsetting deduction the amount of royalties paid. It was admitted that, if the assignors' payments are excluded, the depletion allowed respondents should be correspondingly reduced.

The question is whether respondents' gross income should include moneys paid to assignors ...


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