APPEAL FROM THE DISTRICT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK.
Hughes, McReynolds, Butler, Stone, Roberts, Black, Reed, Frankfurter, Douglas
MR. JUSTICE REED delivered the opinion of the Court.
These appeals involve the validity of Order No. 27 of the Secretary of Agriculture, issued under the Agricultural
Marketing Agreement Act of 1937,*fn1 regulating the handling of milk in the New York metropolitan area.
On October 27, 1938, the United States of America filed a complaint against the Rock Royal Co-operative, Inc., the Central New York Cooperative Association, Inc., and Schuyler Junction New York Milk Shed Cooperative, Inc., seeking a mandatory injunction requiring the defendants and their representatives to comply with the provisions of the Order. On November 26, 1938, a similar action was filed in the same court against the Jetter Dairy Company, Inc. On December 2 these causes were consolidated. The original proceedings had sought relief not only for violations of the Order of the Secretary of Agriculture but also, if the court should find that the defendants or any of them were not subject to that Order, for violation of Official Order No. 126 issued by the Commissioner of Agriculture and Markets of the State of New York. The two orders are in pari materia, one covering milk moving in or directly burdening, obstructing or affecting interstate commerce and the other*fn2 covering milk in intrastate commerce. Each defendant is a dealer handling milk moving in interstate commerce. On December 15, Holton V. Noyes, as Commissioner of Agriculture and Markets of the State of New York, was permitted to intervene as a party plaintiff in the consolidated action. He sought an injunction commanding the defendants and their representatives to comply with Order No. 126 or, should it be determined that their milk was not subject to this Order, to comply with the Order of the Secretary of Agriculture.
In their answers, the defendants pleaded certain affirmative defenses, setting up the invalidity of Order No. 27 because of improper efforts to secure its adoption.
Broadly speaking, these defenses were based upon erroneous representations alleged to have been made by officials and by certain private organizations to bring about the approval of the Order and upon an alleged conspiracy of the same private organizations to create a monopoly by means of the Order. The motion to strike these defenses having been overruled, the Dairymen's League Cooperative Association, hereinafter called the League, and the Metropolitan Cooperative Milk Producers Bargaining Agency, Inc., hereinafter called the Agency, were permitted to intervene to combat them.
The answers also challenged the two orders and the Act as contrary to the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution and the Act as involving improper delegation of legislative power. The Central New York Cooperative Association denied the power of the Congress to enact the legislation under the Commerce Clause and set up as a further defense that it was not subject to either order.
After a hearing upon the merits, the District Court dismissed the complaints. The state order was eliminated from consideration on the understanding, not questioned here, that the milk of all four defendants is covered by the Federal Order, if valid. It was further held that §§ 8c (5) (B) (ii) and 8c (5) (F) of the Act violate the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment, that the Order is discriminatory and takes property without compensation, that approval of the producers was secured by unlawful misrepresentation and coercion and that important provisions of the Order, authorizing payments to cooperative and proprietary handlers, have no basis in the Act. United States v. Rock Royal Co-operative, 26 F.Supp. 534, 548, 550, 544, 545, 553. As the unconstitutionality of certain sections of an Act of Congress was one ground of the decision an appeal was allowed directly to this Court.*fn3
As its name implies, it was aimed at assisting in the marketing of agricultural commodities.
By § 1 it is declared that "the disruption of the orderly exchange of commodities in interstate commerce impairs
the purchasing power of farmers" thus destroying the value of agricultural assets to the detriment of the national public interest. This interference is declared to "burden and obstruct the normal channels of interstate commerce."
By § 2 it is declared to be the policy of Congress, through the exercise of the powers conferred upon the Secretary of Agriculture, "to establish and maintain such orderly marketing conditions for agricultural commodities in interstate commerce as will establish prices to farmers at a level that will give agricultural commodities
a purchasing power with respect to articles that farmers buy, equivalent to the purchasing power of agricultural commodities in the base period. . . ."
Under § 2 of the Act, the base period for agricultural commodities, except tobacco and potatoes, is fixed at the pre-war period of August, 1909, to July, 1914. Where the purchasing power during the base period cannot be satisfactorily determined from available statistics within the Department of Agriculture, the Secretary is authorized to take as the base period from August, 1919, to July, 1929, or a portion thereof. § 8e. In prescribing minimum prices for milk the statute authorizes the Secretary to fix minimum prices without restriction to the purchasing power during the base period so as to reflect the prices of available supplies of feed and other economic conditions, if he finds after a hearing that minimum prices with a base period purchasing power are unreasonable. § 8c (18).
Section 8a (6) gives jurisdiction to the district courts of the United States to enforce and to prevent and restrain any person from violating any of the orders, regulations or agreements under its provisions.
Section 8b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to enter into marketing agreements with the producers and others engaged in the handling of agricultural commodities in or affecting interstate commerce. These agreements may be for all agricultural commodities and their products, are entirely voluntary and may cover the handling of the commodity by any person engaged in the various operations of processing or distribution. Agreements are involved only incidentally in this proceeding.
Section 8c provides for a use of orders, instead of agreements, in certain situations. These orders apply only to specified commodities, including milk.*fn6 They are to be entered only when the Secretary of Agriculture has reason
to believe that the issuance of an order will tend to effectuate the declared policy of the Act with respect to any commodity or product thereof, and after notice and an opportunity for hearing. It is necessary also for the Secretary of Agriculture to set forth in such order a finding upon the evidence introduced at the hearing that the issuance of the Order and the terms and conditions thereof will tend to effectuate the declared policy.*fn7 When, as here, the commodity is milk, the Act requires*fn8 that the Order contain one or more of terms specified in § 8c (5) and no others, except certain terms common to all orders and set out in § 8c (7). These terms, as used in the Order under examination, will be referred to later. Orders may only be issued*fn9 after hearing upon a marketing agreement which regulates the handling of the commodity in the same manner as the order. Without special determination of the Secretary of Agriculture and approval of the President, orders are not to become effective unless approved by handlers as required by the Act.*fn10
Notwithstanding the refusal or failure of handlers to sign a marketing agreement relating to such commodity, the Secretary of Agriculture, with the approval of the President, may issue an order without the adoption of an agreement if he determines that the refusal or failure of the handlers to sign a marketing agreement tends to prevent the effectuation of the declared policy with respect to the commodity and that the issuance of the order is the only practical means of advancing the interest of the producers. In such a case the order must be approved or favored by two-thirds of the producers in number or volume who have been engaged, during a representative period, in the production for market of the
commodity within the production area or two-thirds of those engaged in the production of the commodity for sale in the marketing area specified in the marketing agreement or order. § 8c (9). Section 8c (19) authorizes a referendum to determine whether the issuance of the order is approved by the producers. Section 8c (12) provides that the Secretary shall consider the approval or disapproval by any cooperative association as the approval or disapproval of the producers who are members, stockholders or patrons of the cooperative association.
Section 8c (15) provides for administrative review by the Secretary on petition of a handler objecting to any provision as not in accordance with law and seeking a modification or exemption therefrom. By (15) (B) the district courts have jurisdiction to review such ruling.
The Problem. -- In accordance with the provisions of the Act the Secretary of Agriculture, before promulgating Order No. 27, conducted public hearings attended by handlers, producers and consumers of milk and their representatives throughout the milkshed. No defendant, however, was represented. These hearings followed the presentation by the Agency to the Secretary and to the Commissioner of a proposed marketing agreement and order regulating the handling of milk in the New York marketing area with a request for action under the federal and New York statutes. The hearings were jointly held by the federal and state governments. The cooperation of the two governments was the culmination of a course of investigation and legislation which had continued over many years. The problem from the standpoint of New York was fully considered and the results set out in the Report of 1933 of the Joint Legislative Committee to Investigate the Milk Industry. This investigation was followed by the creation of the Milk Control Board with broad powers to regulate the dairy business of the state. This board had power to fix prices to
be paid to producers and to be charged to consumers.*fn11 A later New York act, the Rogers-Allen Act,*fn12 authorized the state commissioner to cooperate with the federal authorities acting under the present Marketing Agreement Act, and to issue orders supplementary to those of the Federal Government to be carried out under joint administration.
The problems concerned with the maintenance and distribution of an adequate supply of milk in metropolitan centers are well understood by producers and handlers. In the milkshed and marketing area of metropolitan New York these problems are peculiarly acute.*fn13 It is generally recognized that the chief cause of fluctuating prices and supplies is the existence of a normal surplus which is necessary to furnish an adequate amount for peak periods of consumption. This results in an excess of production during the troughs of demand. As milk is highly perishable, a fertile field for the growth of bacteria, and yet an essential item of diet, it is most desirable to have an adequate production under close sanitary supervision to meet the constantly varying needs. The sale of milk in metropolitan New York is ringed around with requirements of the health departments to assure the purity of the supply. Only farms with equipment approved by the health authorities of the marketing area and operated in accordance with their requirements are permitted to market their milk. More than sixty thousand dairies located in the states of New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Vermont hold certificates
of inspection and approval from the Department of Health of the City of New York. More than five hundred receiving plants similarly scattered have been approved for the receiving and shipping of grades A and B milk. Since all milk produced cannot find a ready market as fluid milk in flush periods, the surplus must move into cream, butter, cheese, milk powder and other more or less nonperishable products. Since these manufactures are in competition with all similar dairy products, the prices for the milk absorbed into manufacturing processes must necessarily meet the competition of low-cost production areas far removed from the metropolitan centers. The market for fluid milk for use as a food beverage is the most profitable to the producer. Consequently, all producers strive for the fluid milk market. It is obvious that the marketing of fluid milk in New York has contacts at least with the entire national dairy industry. The approval of dairies by the Department of Health of New York City, as a condition for the sale of their fluid milk in the metropolitan area, isolates from this general competition a well recognized segment of the entire industry. Since these producers are numerous enough to keep up a volume of fluid milk for New York distribution beyond ordinary requirements, cut-throat competition even among them would threaten the quality and in the end the quantity of fluid milk deemed suitable for New York consumption. Students of the problem generally have apparently recognized a fair division among producers of the fluid milk market and utilization of the rest of the available supply in other dairy staples as an appropriate method of attack for its solution. Order No. 27 was an attempt to make effective such an arrangement under the authority of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act.
State of New York was "physically and inextricably intermingled" with the interstate milk; that all was handled either in the current of interstate commerce or so as to affect, burden and obstruct such interstate commerce in
milk and its products. An exception was made as to milk regulated by the order of the Commissioner of Agriculture and Markets of the State of New York. The Secretary further found that prices calculated in accordance with the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937
to give this milk a purchasing power equivalent to the parties mentioned in §§ 2 and 8e of that Act were not reasonable in view of the supplies and prices of feeds and other economic conditions which affect the supply and demand for milk. He then fixed a minimum price for milk to be determined from time to time by formula.
By the Order the marketing area is defined as the City of New York and the counties of Nassau, Suffolk and Westchester. A producer is any person producing milk delivered to a handler at a plant approved by a health authority for the receiving of milk for sale in the marketing area. A handler is a person engaged in the handling of milk or cream received at an approved plant for similar sale. "Handler" includes cooperative associations. The administrative sections of the Order setting up a milk administrator and defining his duties are not attacked. Nor are those which classify milk.
Article IV is important since it establishes minimum prices for milk. There are various differentials based upon use, butter fat content, and distances between the points of production and consumption which it is unnecessary to analyze. For the purposes of this opinion it is sufficient to say, as an example, that the minimum price each handler should pay for milk is fixed by a formula which varies with the butter-price range for 92-score butter at wholesale in the New York market during the 60 days preceding the 25th day of the preceding month. The handlers are required to file reports as to their receipts and utilization of milk of the various classes. It should be understood, however, that this minimum price is not the amount which the producer receives but the price level or so-called "value" from which is calculated the actual amount in dollars and cents which he is to receive.
By Article VI a uniform price is computed and it is this uniform price which the producer is actually paid by
the proprietary (non-cooperative) handlers. The uniform price is determined by a computation which in substance multiplies the amount of milk (classified according to its use) received by all handlers, less certain quantities of milk permitted to be deducted, by the minimum prices fixed by Article IV for the different classes of milk. From the result various payments and reservations are deducted and the remainder is divided by the total quantity of milk received. To equalize, handlers pay into the producer settlement fund. While much over-simplified the operation will be made clear by summarizing the provisions of Article VII to require that handlers shall pay to the producer settlement fund the amount by which their purchased milk multiplied by the minimum prices for the various classes is greater than their purchased milk multiplied by the uniform price. When the handlers' purchased milk multiplied by the minimum price is less than when it is multiplied by the uniform price, the producer settlement fund pays them the difference for distribution to their producers. These provisions give uniform prices to all producers, with exceptions to be herein stated, in accordance with the general use of milk for the preceding period.
Other provisions of the Order upon which an attack is made will be pointed out in the discussion of the particular objections.
Suspension of Order. -- It developed at the argument of the causes in this Court that the Secretary of Agriculture on March 18, 1939,*fn15 had suspended Order No. 27 on account of the effect of the decree below on its administration and enforcement. § 8c (16) (A). Since this suspension is authorized by the statute and the Order preserves accrued rights, we are of the opinion this step does not make these proceedings moot. Reports
of their receipts and classified sales of milk, accounting of their pool obligations in the determination of the uniform price and settlement with their producers on the basis of the Order, as well as the payment of money, are sought from the defendants. The controversy ...