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decided: January 22, 1986.



Blackmun, J., delivered the opinion of the Court, in which Burger, C. J., and Brennan, White, and Marshall, JJ., joined. Rehnquist, J., filed a dissenting opinion, in which Powell, Stevens, and O'connor, JJ., joined, post, p. 425.

Author: Blackmun

[ 474 U.S. Page 411]

 JUSTICE BLACKMUN delivered the opinion of the Court.

We are confronted again with the issue of a state regulation requiring an interstate pipeline to purchase gas from all the parties owning interests in a common gas pool. The purchases would be in proportion to the owners' respective interests in the pool, and would be compelled even though the pipeline has pre-existing contracts with less than all of the pool's owners.

This Court, in Northern Natural Gas Co. v. State Corporation Comm'n of Kansas, 372 U.S. 84 (1963), struck down, on pre-emption grounds, a virtually identical regulation. In the present case, however, the Supreme Court of Mississippi ruled that the subsequently enacted Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA), 92 Stat. 3351, 15 U. S. C. § 3301 et seq., effectively nullified Northern Natural by vesting regulatory power in the States over the wellhead sale of gas. The Mississippi Supreme Court went on to hold that the Mississippi regulation did not impermissibly burden interstate commerce. Because of the importance of the issues in the functioning of the interstate market in natural gas, we noted probable jurisdiction. 470 U.S. 1083 (1985).


The Harper Sand gas pool lies in Marion County in southern Mississippi. Harper gas is classified as "high-cost natural gas" under NGPA's § 107(c)(1), 15 U. S. C. § 3317(c)(1), because it is taken from a depth of more than 15,000 feet. At the time of the proceedings before appellee State Oil and Gas Board of Mississippi, six separate wells drew gas from the pool. A recognized property of a common pool is that, as gas is drawn up through one well, the pressure surrounding

[ 474 U.S. Page 412]

     that well is reduced and other gas flows towards the area of the producing well. Thus, one well can drain an entire pool, even if the gas in the pool is owned by several different owners. The interests of these other owners often are referred to as "correlative rights." See, e. g., Miss. Code Ann. § 53-1-1 (1972 and Supp. 1985).

Some owners of interests in the Harper Sand pool, such as appellee Getty Oil Co., actually drill and operate gas wells. Others, such as appellee Coastal Exploration, Inc., own smaller working interests in various wells. Normally, these lesser owners rely on the well operators to arrange the sales of their shares of the production, see App. 26, although some nonoperator owners contract directly either with the pipeline that purchases the operator's gas or with other customers.

Appellant Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corporation (Transco) operates a natural gas pipeline that transports gas from fields in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi for resale to customers throughout the Northeast. Beginning in 1978, Transco entered into 35 long-term contracts with Getty and two other operators, Florida Exploration Co. and Tomlinson Interests, Inc., to purchase gas produced from the Harper Sand pool. In line with prevailing industry practice, the contracts contained "take-or-pay" provisions. These essentially required Transco either to accept currently a certain percentage of the gas each well was capable of producing, or to pay the contract price for that gas with a right to take delivery at some later time, usually limited in duration. Take-or-pay provisions enable sellers to avoid fluctuations in cash flow and are therefore thought to encourage investments in well development. See Pierce, Natural Gas Regulation, Deregulation, and Contracts, 68 Va. L. Rev. 63, 77-79 (1982).

Transco entered into these contracts during a period of national gas shortage. Transco's contracts with Getty and Tomlinson obligated it to buy only Getty's and Tomlinson's own shares of the gas produced by the wells they operated,

[ 474 U.S. Page 413]

     while its contracts with Florida Exploration required it to take virtually all the gas Florida Exploration's wells produced, regardless of its ownership. See App. 107. But demand was sufficiently high that Transco also purchased, on a non-contract basis, the production shares of smaller owners, such as Coastal, in the Getty and Tomlinson wells. Id., at 155. In the spring of 1982, however, consumer demand for gas dropped significantly, and Transco began to have difficulty selling its gas. It therefore announced in May 1982 that it would no longer purchase gas from owners with whom it had not actually contracted. See, e. g., id., at 41-42. Transco refused Coastal's request that it be allowed to ratify Getty's contract, and made a counteroffer, which Coastal refused, either to purchase Coastal's gas at a significantly lower price than it was obligated to pay under its existing contracts or to transport Coastal's gas to other customers if Coastal arranged such sales. See id., at 66-69. Fifty-five other non-contract owners of Harper gas, however, did accept such offers from Transco. See 457 So. 2d 1298, 1309 (Miss. 1984).

Getty and Tomlinson cut back production so that their wells produced only that amount of gas equal to their ownership interests in the maximum flow. The immediate economic effect of the cutback was to deprive Coastal of revenue, because none of its share of the Harper gas was being produced. The ultimate geological effect, however, is that gas will flow from the Getty-Tomlinson areas of the field, which are producing at less than capacity, to the Florida Exploration areas; gas owned by interests that produce through Getty's and Tomlinson's wells thus may be siphoned away. Moreover, because of the decrease in pressure, gas left in the ground, such as Coastal's gas, may become more costly to recover and therefore its value at the wellhead may decline.

[ 474 U.S. Page 414]


On July 29, 1982, Coastal filed a petition with appellee State Oil and Gas Board of Mississippi, asking the Board to enforce its Statewide Rule 48, a "ratable-take" requirement. Rule 48 provides:

"Each person now or hereafter engaged in the business of purchasing oil or gas from owners, operators, or producers shall purchase without discrimination in favor of one owner, operator, or producer against another in the same common source of supply."

Rule 48 never before had been employed to require a pipeline actually to purchase non-contract gas; rather, its sole purpose appears to have been to prevent drainage, that is, to prevent a buyer from contracting with one seller and then draining a common pool of all its gas. See 457 So. 2d, at 1306. The Gas Board conducted a 3-day evidentiary proceeding. It found Transco in violation of Rule 48, and, by its Order No. 409-82, filed Oct. 13, 1982,*fn1 ordered Transco to start taking gas "ratably" (i. e., in proportion to the various owners' shares) from the Harper Sand pool, and to purchase the gas under nondiscriminatory price and take-or-pay conditions.

Transco appealed the Gas Board's ruling to the Circuit Court of the First Judicial District of Hinds County, Miss. In the parts of its opinion relevant to this appeal, the Circuit Court held that the Gas Board's authority was not preempted

[ 474 U.S. Page 415]

     by either the Natural Gas Act of 1938 (NGA), ch. 556, 52 Stat. 821, 15 U. S. C. § 717 et seq., or the NGPA; that the NGPA effectively overruled Northern Natural ; and that the Gas Board's order did not run afoul of the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution.

The Mississippi Supreme Court affirmed that portion of the Circuit Court's judgment. 457 So. 2d 1298 (1984). With respect to Transco's pre-emption claim, the court recognized that, prior to 1978, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and its predecessor, the Federal Power Commission, possessed "plenary authority to regulate the sale and transportation of natural gas in interstate commerce." Id., at 1314. Under the interpretation of that authority in Northern Natural, where a Kansas ratable-take order was ruled invalid because the order "[invaded] the exclusive jurisdiction which the Natural Gas Act has conferred upon the Federal Power Commission," 372 U.S., at 89, Mississippi's "authority to enforce Rule 48 requiring ratable taking had been effectively suspended -- preempted, if you will, and any orders such as Order No. 409-82 would have been wholly unenforceable." 457 So. 2d, at 1314. But the court went on to conclude that the enactment of the NGPA in 1978 removed FERC's jurisdiction over "high-cost" gas (the type produced from the Harper Sand pool). Under § 601(a)(1) of the NGPA, "the Natural Gas Act of 1938 (NGA) and FERC's jurisdiction under the Act never apply to deregulated gas" (emphasis added), 457 So. 2d, at 1316, and "[that] message is decisive of the preemption issue in this case." Ibid.

The court also found no implicit pre-emption of Rule 48. Transco's compliance with the Rule could not bring it into conflict with any of FERC's still-existing powers over the gas industry. The court noted that, under Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corp. v. Arkansas Public Service Comm'n, 461 U.S. 375, 384 (1983), a federal determination that deregulation was appropriate was entitled to as much weight in determining pre-emption as a federal decision to regulate actively.

[ 474 U.S. Page 416]

     Although the NGPA stemmed from Congress' desire to deregulate the gas industry, the court found that "[however] consistent a continued proscription on state regulation might have been with the theoretical underpinnings of deregulation, the Congress in NGPA in 1978 did not ban state regulation of deregulated gas." 457 So. 2d, at 1318.

In addressing the Commerce Clause issue, the court relied on the balancing test set out in Pike v. Bruce Church, Inc., 397 U.S. 137 (1970): when a state law "regulates evenhandedly to effectuate a legitimate local public interest, and its effects on interstate commerce are only incidental, it will be upheld unless the burden imposed on such commerce is clearly excessive in relation to the putative local benefits." Id., at 142. In weighing the benefit against the burden, a reviewing court should consider whether the local interest "could be promoted as well with a lesser impact on interstate activities." Ibid. The court found that Rule 48 had a legitimate local purpose -- the prevention of unfair drainage from commonly owned gas pools. It identified the principal burden on interstate commerce as higher prices for the ultimate consumers of natural gas. But, under Cities Service Gas Co. v. Peerless Oil & Gas Co., 340 U.S. 179, 186-187 (1950), higher prices do not render a state regulation impermissible per se under the Commerce Clause. Also, Congress expressed a clear intent in enacting the NGPA that "all reasonable costs of production of natural gas shall be borne ultimately by the consumer. . . . Congress within the scope of its power under the affirmative Commerce Clause has expressly authorized such increases." 457 So. 2d, at 1321. Transco had identified one other potential burden on interstate commerce: Rule 48 would require it to take more gas from Mississippi's fields than would otherwise be the case, thereby leading Transco to reduce its purchases from Louisiana and Texas. But the Mississippi court rejected this argument, noting both that Texas and Louisiana had their own ratable-take regulations, which presumably would protect

[ 474 U.S. Page 417]

     their producers, and that the actual cause of any such effect was Transco's imprudent entry into take-or-pay contracts, rather than the State's ratable-take requirement. Transco knew of Rule 48's existence when it entered into its various contracts and should have foreseen the risk that it would be required to purchase smaller owners' shares. Moreover, since Transco was permitted to pass along its increased costs, the consumer ultimately would bear this burden, which was "simply one inevitable consequence of the free market policies of the era of deregulation with respect to which Transco is vested by the negative Commerce Clause with no right to complain." Id., at 1322.

Finally, the court rejected Transco's argument that the State could have served the same local public interest through a ratable-production order rather than through a ratable-take order. It held that it need not even consider whether less burdensome alternatives to the ratable-take order existed, because Transco had failed to meet the threshold requirement of demonstrating an unreasonable burden on interstate commerce.*fn2


If the Gas Board's action were analyzed under the standard used in Northern Natural, it clearly would be pre-empted. Whether that decision governs this case depends on whether Congress, in enacting the NGPA, altered those characteristics of the federal regulatory scheme which provided the basis in Northern Natural for a finding of pre-emption.

[ 474 U.S. Page 418]

     In that case this Court considered whether the "comprehensive scheme of federal regulation" that Congress enacted in the NGA pre-empted a Kansas ratable-take order. 372 U.S., at 91. Northern Natural Gas Company had a take-or-pay contract with Republic Natural Gas Company to purchase all the gas Republic could produce from its wells in the Hugoton Field. Northern also had contracts with other producers to buy their production, but those contracts required it to purchase their gas only to the extent that its requirements could not be satisfied by Republic. Id., at 87. Northern historically had taken ratably from all Hugoton wells, but, starting in 1958, it no longer needed all the gas the wells in the field were capable of producing. It therefore reduced its purchases from the other wells, causing drainage toward Republic's wells. The Kansas Corporation Commission, which previously had imposed a ...

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