Certified Question from the United States District Court for the District of Alaska, Timothy M. Burgess, Judge. U.S. District Court No. 3:07-cv-00030 TMB.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Carpeneti, Justice
Before: Fabe, Chief Justice, Eastaugh, Carpeneti, Winfree, and Christen, Justices.
We accepted certification in this case to determine whether the 2004 amendments to AS 23.30.045(a) and AS 23.30.055 violate the plaintiff's right to equal protection or due process under the Alaska Constitution. Applying minimum scrutiny, we hold that they do not.
II. FACTS AND PROCEEDINGS
Joseph Schiel sued Union Oil Company of California (UNOCAL or the company) for injuries he suffered when he was working on UNOCAL's Grayling Drilling Platform. Schiel was an employee of Peak Oilfield Services at the time of the injury. He lost two fingers when he was going down a ladder and put his hand on a skid rail for balance; a rig jack moved on the skid rail and crushed his hand. Peak paid workers' compensation benefits to Schiel. Schiel brought a third-party tort action against UNOCAL in superior court, and the company removed the case to the United States District Court. After removal to federal court, UNOCAL moved for summary judgment, arguing that the Alaska Workers' Compensation Act*fn1 barred Schiel's tort claims because the company was Schiel's statutory employer and therefore immune from suit. Schiel opposed and filed a cross-motion for summary judgment, contending that the 2004 amendments to the act, which expanded its exclusive liability provisions to include project owners, violated the Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses of the Alaska Constitution. At the same time he filed his summary judgment motion, Schiel moved the United States District Court, citing Alaska Rule of Appellate Procedure 407,*fn2 to certify to this court the question of the constitutionality of these statutory amendments.
United States District Court Judge Timothy M. Burgess issued a certification order requesting that we answer two questions: (1) whether the 2004 amendments to AS 23.30.045(a) and .055 violate the Equal Protection provisions of the Alaska Constitution; and (2) whether the 2004 amendments to AS 23.30.045(a) and .055 violate the Due Process provisions of the Alaska Constitution. We agreed to accept certification, heard oral argument on the matter, and now answer both questions in the negative.
A decision by this court to accept a certified question from another court under Appellate Rule 407(a) involves determinative questions of Alaska law for which there is no controlling precedent.*fn3 "In deciding a certified question of law, we must `stand in the shoes of the certifying court, yet exercise our independent judgment.' "*fn4 We exercise our independent judgment, selecting the rule of law that is most persuasive in light of precedent, reason, and policy.*fn5
A. Alaska Statutes 23.30.045(a) and 23.30.055 Do Not Violate Schiel's Right to Equal Protection Under the Alaska Constitution
In 2004 the Twenty-Third Alaska State Legislature amended the Alaska Workers' Compensation Act, extending liability for workers' compensation coverage to project owners and providing immunity from tort liability to both general contractors and project owners.*fn6 Before enactment of these amendments, a general contractor was liable for workers' compensation benefits to a subcontractor's employee when the subcontractor failed to secure workers' compensation;*fn7 in addition, an injured worker could sue a general contractor for negligence even though the ...